Renaissance Art and Music

: the space between

Programme Notes

Our concert at Temple Church featuring the Amaryllis Consort was, in our opinion, a huge success. Thank you so much to the audience, the performers, and Temple Church for their support and participation. What follows are our programme notes from the evening. Apologies for the wonky formatting in WordPress… for a properly cited and formatted version, please see the downloadable PDF here: Programme Notes.

Sicut cervus / Sitivit anima mea (Psalm 42:1)

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Io dico que fra voi

Jacques Arcadelt

O quam gloriosum

Tomás Luis de Victoria

Domine in furore / Turbatus est (Psalm 6)

Josquin de Prez

Le chant des Oiseaux

Clément Janequin

Urbs beata Jerusalem

Guillaumae Dufay

Surge illuminare

William Byrd

Weep O mine eyes

John Bennet

O let me live for true love

Thomas Tomkins

What needeth all this travail? / O fools!

John Wilbye

Adieu sweet Amaryllis

John Wilbye

***

Over the past year, the Renaissance Art & Music project has investigated numerous ways in which scholars and the public alike could gain a better understanding of Renaissance cultural production through the examination of these two ostensibly distinct disciplines. This concert is the culmination of one aspect of our project: identifying and drawing out connections between works of the period—some direct, some less so—in an attempt to see what new light can be shed through musical performance. The study (and experience) of music and art largely occurs separately. This concert aims to place aural and visual remnants of Renaissance culture side-by-side, in order to explore the potential benefits and practical challenges of manifesting the two arts together in a contemporary setting.

We would like to thank the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the Courtauld Institute, and Royal Holloway, University of London. Gratitude also goes to Charlotte de Mille, Francis Brett, Kerry McCarthy, and the staff of Temple Church for their support.

Basilica of St John Lateran (13th c, refurbished in 19th c) Jacopo Torriti  Rome

Basilica of St John Lateran (13th c, refurbished in 19th c)
Jacopo Torriti
Rome

The first pairing is a straightforward one of imagery and iconography. Whether in literature, music, or the visual arts, certain religious symbols received considerable attention. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina’s famous bipartite motet, Sicut cervus and Sitivit anima mea, for instance, sets to music Psalm 42, ‘as the deer longs for the water brooks’. In the religious sense, an animal thirsts for water just as the soul thirsts for the ‘fountain’ or ‘stream’ of Christianity. Such imagery would have been known to Palestrina not only from scripture, but from his professional surroundings as well. The mosaic apse of the Basilica of St John Lateran in Rome—where Palestrina worked between 1555 and 1560—contains this same scriptural imagery, originally created by late-thirteenth century artist Jacopo Torriti. As Simona Cohen points out, the stag was a symbol of Christ used in emblematic art, secular as well as sacred, well into the sixteenth century. ‘The image of the stag as a vulnerable, pursued animal’ evolved into recurring literary motif used by humanist poet Petrarch, whose love interest, Laura, was sometimes depicted as a deer being pursued.[1] Petrarch was also one of the poets set most frequently to music in the Renaissance, including several pieces by Palestrina.

The Fall of Phaeton (1533) Michelangelo Black chalk Royal Library, Windsor

The Fall of Phaeton (1533)
Michelangelo
Black chalk
Royal Library, Windsor

The next piece, Io dico que fra voi, demonstrates how the boundaries between music and the literary and visual arts were strikingly fluid. The text for Io dico was written by famed artist Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni and set to music by the Netherlandish composer Jacques Arcadelt (c.1507-1568). Michelangelo was a prolific poet, although attempts to publish a volume of Michelangelo’s poetry during his lifetime were largely unsuccessful: the first collection appeared only in 1623 in a heavily censored version. It is significant that it was through music publishing that Michelangelo’s poetry first reached a wider audience, as Arcadelt’s volume was printed in 55 editions across Italy between 1528 and 1654. On receipt of the compositions by Arcadelt, Michelangelo wrote to the composer to ask how best to pay for work that was ‘considered to be beautiful’.[1] His openness to musical adaptations of his poetry—verse created for the same figure as many of his drawings—illustrates how artistic production in the Renaissance could be influenced from multiple directions. Indeed, scholars look to Michelangelo’s poetry to unveil abiding aesthetic concerns which animate the whole of his work: sculpture, painting, drawing as well as the poetry itself.

For this concert, we present Michelangelo’s text, Io dico, with his The Fall of Phaeton (1533). Both poem and drawing were directed at Michelangelo’s love interest, Tommaso dei Cavalieri, for whom Michelangelo had previously written poetry and arranged for their musical settings. Six months after Michelangelo first met Tommaso de’Cavalieri late in 1532, a letter from Michelangelo’s friend and fellow artist, Sebastiano del Piombo, tells of an arrangement for two poems on Tommaso to be set to music in Rome. Within a month, the pieces had been performed by Giovan Francesco [Fattuci], Michelangelo adding ‘they are considered wonderful things to sing; the words didn’t merit such a setting.’[2] Unfortunately, the two compositions (by Constanzo Festa and Jean Conseil [Concilion]) have not survived, making it impossible to ascertain which poems Michelangelo released for this project.[3] The musical settings, however, are surely to be regarded as presentation pieces, much as his sonnets and a group of drawings (including The Fall of Phaeton) are taken.[4]

The Burial of Count Orgaz (1568-1588)          El Greco          Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo

The Burial of Count Orgaz (1568-1588)
El Greco
Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo

If the works of Michelangelo and Arcadelt reveal how music could circulate an artist’s poetry beyond his immediate locale, the compositions of Spanish composer Tomás Luis de Victoria demonstrate how composers themselves moved widely across Europe. In 1565 Victoria travelled to Italy and worked in various Roman ecclesiastical institutions, until he returned to Spain in 1587. The motet, O quam gloriosum, first published in 1572, comes from his middle of his Roman period. In Rome at the same time was the Greek-born painter and sculptor, El Greco (1541-1614), who in 1577 moved to Toledo and, through his unique combination of Byzantine and western styles became a central figure of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco’s blend of styles can be seen in The Burial of the Count of Orgaz. Like El Greco, Victoria eagerly incorporated Roman compositional style into his Spanish musical background, possibly something he learned studying composition with Palestrina. In O quam gloriosum, one hears the hallmarks of Roman style: the juxtaposition of homophonic sections, in which voices sing in the same rhythm, against sections of more elaborate imitation. In this way, artists and composers could both alter as well as uphold national styles as they moved through different artistic contexts.

Master of the Countess of Warwick (fl. later 1560s)      Unidentified English family group

Master of the Countess of Warwick (fl. later 1560s)
Unidentified English family group

The next piece also addresses the question of cultural transfer: how did a setting of Psalm 6 (Turbatus est) by Franco Flemish composer Josquin des Prez make its way into an English Tudor painting? The girl on the left side of the painting holds her hands over a keyboard, but not on a precise chord; she may have held her hands over a table as a prop, then had the keyboard painted in later as was sometimes the custom.[1] The tallest boy in the middle holds a bassus partbook containing Josquin’s Turbatus est. The other boy, one from the right, holds another part book, but this one with non-sensical musical notation.

Numerous problems exist with this painting. As a boy of 13, it was unlikely that the eldest son holding the ‘real’ part book would have been able to actually sing the bass part, which regularly goes down to a bottom A. Rather than depicting an actual performance, portraits of music-making such as this—like instruments themselves—operated as status symbols, impressing upon visitors to the household the learnedness and wealth of the family. Furthermore, although manuscript and print sources for this motet are extant, they are rare—especially in England given the rise of Protestantism in the 1560s. As musicologist Kerry McCarthy has suggested, the painting reproduces the musical notation from a printed source: Tomus primus psalmorum selectorum printed by Johannes Petreius in Nuremberg in 1538.

While this raises questions about how the part book got into the hands of the artist, let alone the noble children, McCarthy states nonetheless that this particular motet ‘would have seemed surprisingly un-foreign to the sort of people who sat for our portrait. Domine ne in furore is…exactly the sort of “psalm-motet” cultivated by so many mid-century English composers: Sheppard, Mundy, White, Parsons, and various others — including the young Byrd, who indulged his taste for elaborate counterpoint in the 1560s with some truly monumental psalm settings’.[2]

Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap (1565) Pieter Bruegel Wiltshire, Wilton House

Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap (1565)
Pieter Bruegel
Wiltshire, Wilton House

 In pairing French composer Clément Janequin’s music with Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap by the Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel, our connection is one of an aesthetic trend. Janequin was a master of mimetic programmatic chanson, songs that imitate elements of nature or creations of man through short motifs and onomatopoeic effects, as in his well-known Le chant des Oiseaux, or ‘bird song’. Mimesis—the idea that art should imitate reality—experienced a resurgence in the Renaissance as a central tenant of humanism. Stemming from such classical thinkers as Plato and Aristotle, the controversial aesthetics of mimesis thoroughly permeated artistic production, including the paintings of figures such as Bruegel. As Catherine Levesque points out, acclaim for Bruegel as an imitator are a recurring theme in tributes to the artist: from ‘Ludovicco Guicciardini’s 1567 praise of the artist as a “grand imitatore della scienza & fantasie di Girolamo Bosco” to Ortelius’ epitaph praising his friend as “not just the best of painters but ‘nature’s painter,’ worth of being imitated by all”’.[1] As a catalyst in the aesthetics of art, mimesis generated many different models of art, refining, constructing and deconstructing art’s ‘purpose’ to portray realism or idealism. Offered here are two attempts at directly imitating or representing the natural (or external ‘real’ world) through vignettes of life, one sonically, one visually.

***

 Dufay’s Urbs Beata Jerusalem, and Byrd’s Surge Illuminare both found their way onto our programme when we chose to organise our concert in Temple Church. The texts of these two pieces connect to the Temple Church space through their reference to Jerusalem. The Knights Templar was the premiere fighting and economic force representing western Christianity in the Crusades. The patriarch of Jerusalem consecrated Temple Church, built and financed by the Knights Templar, in 1185. Modeled after the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, the Church’s round shape was also symbolic of Jerusalem itself, which lies at the centre of numerous medieval maps as a locus of the ‘crusaders’ world’. The Templars recreated this shape in their buildings across Europe.

 Performing these pieces in a medieval space potentially pinpoints how aspects of the visual and the aural are divergent rather than complementary, as the process of altering physical space is different (and often slower) than altering aural phenomenon. In some locations, medieval ecclesiastical spaces retained their basic structures through the sixteenth century to a remarkable degree—even with the removal of choir screens and iconoclasm of the Reformation. By contrast, changes to the music filling the walls of such buildings (even that of Catholic composers like Byrd) often proceeded at a swifter pace. By Byrd’s time, the initial polyphonic and harmonic techniques of the fifteenth century, as heard in Dufay, had given way to more elaborate polyphony in which each voice was not only more difficult, but functioned more independently. These two pieces thus illustrate how composers one-hundred and fifty years apart praised Jerusalem through polyphonic composition, regardless of how the spaces around them changed.

***

Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1630) Peter Paul Rubens The Courtauld Gallery, London

Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1630)
Peter Paul Rubens
The Courtauld Gallery, London

Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514-1515) Raffaelo Sanzo da Urbino Musée du Louvre, Paris

Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514-1515)
Raffaelo Sanzo da Urbino
Musée du Louvre, Paris

It was common practice across the arts to pay homage to contemporary and past masters through imitation, quotation, or even outright reproduction of their colleague’s work or style. The opening line of John Bennet’s madrigal Weep O mine eyes (published in 1599) clearly quotes John Dowland’s Flow my tears from his widely circulated Lachrime Pavane (1596). Similarly, Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens painted a ‘copy’ of a portrait of Baldassare Castiligone (above left) from the original portrait done by Raphael (Raffaelo Sanzo da Urbino, above right). Though a reproduction, one can still see Rubens’ hallmark technique in his version.

Portrait of William Herbert (1625) Daniel Mytens Private Collection

Portrait of William Herbert (1625)
Daniel Mytens
Private Collection

Thomas Tomkins’ O let me live for true love comes from his 1622 printed collection Songs for 4, 5 and 6 Parts. Tomkins’ publication is dedicated to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who also commissioned this portrait from Dutch painter Daniël Mijtens. Patronage was a social force experienced by artists and musicians alike, with nobility seeking to increase their ‘cultural capital’ through supporting a variety of artistic endeavour. For instance, Shakespeare’s First Folio of plays is also dedicated to the Earl. Overlapping patterns of patronage therefore meant that composers and artists throughout Europe moved itinerantly as craftsmen from one court or artistic centre to the next in search of employment. As a result, patrons  developed a taste for the foreign. English musicians such as Peter Phillips, William Brade and Thomas Simpson found patronage in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany, while Dutch painters, including Anthony van Dyck, were in high demand in England. The artist of this portrait of William, Earl of Pembroke, Mijtens or Mytens the Elder, travelled to England in 1618—becoming a popular and prolific painter in the courts of Kings James I and Charles I.

The manner of their attire and painting them selves (c. 1565-93) John White  British Museum

The manner of their attire and painting them selves (c. 1565-93)
John White
British Museum

John Wilbye’s bipartite 1598 madrigal, What needeth all this travail, offers a potent example of cultural exchange by using New World metaphor to address a classic-style madrigalian subject: romantic love. While the text acknowledges the normalcy of travelling, it questions fundamentally why one has to travel and seek worldly riches, when his beloved at home is greater than all the treasures of the world. Although images, material objects, and stories from the New World were certainly en vogue in England around 1600, a fear of the unknown accompanied feelings of wonder and excitement. Both the madrigal text and the John White’s watercolours reflect how changes in the world might have been perceived— distinctly Other, yet full of ‘rubies, diamonds, fame, and fortune from the South Seas and Moluccas’.

***

Sicut cervus / Sitivit anima mea (Psalm 42:1)

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)

Sicut cervus desiderat ad fontes aquarum,
Ita desiderat anima mea ad te Deus.

Sitivit anima mea ad Deum fortem vivum:

quando veniam et apparebo ante faciem Dei?

As the deer longs for the water-brooks,
So longs my soul for you, O God.

My tears have been my meat day and night,

while they continually say unto me,

Where is thy God?

 

Io dico que fra voi

            Jacques Arcadelt (c. 1507-1568)

Io dico que fra voi, potenti dei

convien co’gni riverso si sopporti.

Poi que sarete morti, di mill’ ingiurie torti,

amando te com’ or di lei tu ardi,

far ne potrai giustamente vendetta.

Ahimé, lasso, ahimé chi pur tropp’aspetta

chi giong’ a suoi conforti tanto tardi’.

Ancor, se ben riguardi un generoso alter e nobil core

perdon’ e port’ a chi l’offend’amore.

By the mighty gods I declare that among you

mortals every misfortune must be endured.

When you are dead from a thousand offences and wrongs.

And she will love you as you now burn for her,

you will be able to take a just revenge.

Alas wretched is the man who must wait so long

for me to come with such late comfort!

And yet, if you consider closely, a generous, proud,

and noble heart pardons and bears love to those who offend him.

 

 O quam gloriosum

            Tomás Luis de Victoria (c1548-1611)

O quam gloriosum est regnum,
in quo cum Christo gaudent omnes Sancti!
Amicti stolis albis,

sequuntur Agnum, quocumque ierit.

O how glorious is the kingdom
in which all the saints rejoice with Christ,
clad in robes of white
they follow the Lamb wherever he goes.

 

Domine in furore / Turbatus est (Psalm 6)

            Josquin de Prez (c. 1450-1521)

Domine, ne in furore tuo arguas me,

neque in ira tua corripias me.

Miserere mei, Domine, quoniam infirmus sum;

sana me, Domine, quoniam conturbata sunt ossa mea.

Et anima mea turbata est valde, sed tu, Domine, usquequo?

Convertere, Domine, et eripe animam meam;

salvum me fac propter misericordiam tuam.

Quoniam non est in morte, qui memor sit tui,

in inferno autem quis confitebitur tibi?

Laboravi in gemitu meo, lavabo per singulas noctes lectum meum;

lacrimis meis stratum meum rigabo.

Turbatus est a furore oculus meus,

inveteravi inter omnes inimicos meos.

Discedite a me omnes, qui operamini iniquitatem,

quoniam exaudivit Dominus vocem fletus mei.

Exaudivit Dominus deprecationem meam,

Dominus orationem meam suscepit.

Erubescant et conturbentur vehementer omnes inimici mei;

convertantur et erubescant valde velociter.

O Lord, do not reprove me in Thy wrath, nor in Thy anger chastise me.

Have mercy on me, Lord, for I am weak, heal me, Lord, for my body is in torment. And my soul is greatly troubled, but Thou, O Lord, how long?

Turn to me, O Lord, and deliver my soul; save me on account of Thy mercy.

For who amongst the dead remembers Thee, who of the dead will tell of Thee? I have suffered and wept, every night have I washed my bed and drenched my blanket with my tears.

 

My eyes are filled with grief,

I have grown feeble in the midst of my enemies.

Leave me, all you who do evil, for the Lord has heard the sound of my weeping. The Lord has heard my appeal, the Lord has accepted my prayer.

May my enemies be put to shame and come to ruin.

May they be turned away and be swiftly put to shame.

 

Le chant des Oiseaux

Clément Janequin (c.1485-1558)

Reveillez vous, coeurs endormis
Le dieu d’amour vous sonne.
A ce premier jour de may,
Oyseaulx feront merveillez,
Pour vous mettre hors d’esmay
Destoupez vos oreilles.
Et farirariron a
Vous serez tous en ioye mis,
Car la saison est bonne.

Vous orrez, à mon advis,
Une dulce musique
Que fera le roy mauvis
D’une voix autentique.
Ty, ty, pyty.
Rire et gaudir c’es mon devis,
Chacun s’i habandonne.
Rossignol du boys ioly,
A qui le voix resonne,
Pour vous mettre hors d’ennuy
Vostre gorge iargonne:
Frian, frian, frian
Fuiez, regrez, pleurs et souci,
Car la saison l’ordonne.

Ariere maistre coucou,
Sortez de no chapitre.
Chacun vous donne au bibou,
Car vous n’estes q’un traistre.
Coucou, coucou
Par traison en chacun nid,
Pondez sans qu’on vous sonne.

Reveillez vous, coeurs endormis,
Le dieu d’amours vous sonne.

Awake, sleepy hearts,
The god of love calls you.
On this first day of May,
The birds will make you marvel.
To lift yourself from dismay,
Unclog your ears.
And fa la la la la
You will be moved to joy,
For the season is good.

You will hear, I advise you,
A sweet music
That the royal blackbird will sing in a pure voice.
Ti, ti, pi-ti
To laugh and rejoice is my device, each with abandon.

Nightingale of the pretty woods,
Whose voice resounds,
So you don’t become bored,
Your throat jabbers away:
Frian, frian
Flee, regrets, tears and worries,
For the season commands it.

Turn around, master cuckoo
Get out of our company.
Each of us gives you a ‘bye-bye’
For you are nothing but a traitor.
Cuckoo, cuckoo
Treacherously in others’ nests,
You lay without being called.

Awake, sleepy hearts,
The god of love is calling you.


 

 

Urbs beata Jerusalem

Guillaumae Dufay  (c.1397-1474)

Urbs beata Jerusalem
dicta pacis visio
quae construitur in caelis
Nivi ex lapidibus
et angelis coronata
ut sponsata comite.

Nova veniens e coelo
nuptiali thalamo.
Praeparata, ut sponsata,
copuletur Domino.
Plateae et muri ejus
ex auro purissimo.

Portae nitent margaritis,
adytis patentibus,
et virtute meritorum
Illuc introducitur
omnis qui ob Christi nomen
hic in mundo premitur.

Tunsionibus, pressuris,
Expoliti lapides,
suis coaptantur locis,
per manus artificis,
Disponuntur permansuri,
sacris aedificiis.


Blessèd City, heavenly Salem,
vision dear of peace and love,
who, of living stones upbuilded, art the joy of heaven above, and, with angel cohorts circled, as a bride to earth dost move!

From celestial realms descending, bridal glory round her shed, to his presence, deck with jewels, by her Lord shall she be led: all her streets and all her bulwarks, of pure gold are fashionèd.

Bright with pearls her portals glitter, they are open evermore; and, by virtue of his merits, thither faithful souls may soar, who for Christ’s dear name in this world pain and tribulation bore.

Many a blow and biting sculpture fashioned well those stones elect, in their places now compacted by the heavenly Architect, who therewith hath willed forever, that his palace should be decked.


Surge illuminare

William Byrd (c1540-1623)

Surge, illuminare, [Jerusalem],

quia venit lumen tuum,

et gloria Domini super te orta est.

Alleluia!

Arise, shine [O Jerusalem];

for thy light is come,

and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee.

 

 

Weep O mine eyes

            John Bennet (c. 1570-1615)

Weep, O mine eyes and cease not,

alas, these your spring tides methinks increase not.
O when begin you to swell so high

that I may drown me in you?

O let me live for true love

            Thomas Tomkins (1572-1656)

O, let me live for true love;
Fa la la la la.
O, let me live, yet let me live no longer,
than that my life may make my love the stronger.
O, let me live for true Love;
Fa la la la la.

What needeth all this travail? / O fools!

            John Wilbye (c.1574-1638)

What needeth all this travail and turmoiling
Shortening the life’s pleasure
To seek this far-fetched treasure
In those hot climates under Phoebus broiling?

O fools! can you not see a traffic nearer,
In my sweet lady’s face, where nature showeth
Whatever treasure eye sees or heart knoweth,
Rubies and diamonds dainty,
And orient pearls such plenty,
Coral and ambergris, sweeter and dearer,
Than which the South Seas or Moluccas lend us,
Or either Indies, East or West, do send us.

Adieu sweet Amaryllis

            John Wilbye

Adieu, adieu
sweet amaryllis.
For since to part your will is.
O heavy tiding

Here is for me no biding.
Yet once again
Ere that I part with you.
Amaryllis, amaryllis,
sweet Adieu.

Singers

Nina Bennet – soprano

David Martin – countertenor

Peter Davoren – tenor

Francis Brett – bass/director

The Amaryllis Consort was founded by the distinguished counter-tenor and director Charles Brett. Now under the directorship of his son Francis Brett, the vocal ensemble consists of established soloists who have a particular affinity for the subtleties of ensemble singing with its special demands on technique and musicianship. Since its London début in 1983 the Consort has appeared throughout the UK and many European countries including France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Portugal. It has also toured Mexico and Central America several times. Through its concert work, broadcasts and recordings it has established a reputation as one of Europe’s leading vocal ensembles.

Whilst the madrigal and music of the Renaissance both sacred and secular remain the Consort’s speciality, programmes have seen an increasing flexibility in terms of repertoire. The odes and anthems of Purcell, Monteverdi Vespers, Handel St John Passion, Mozart Salzburg Masses, Bach motets and the church music of Brahms and Poulenc have all featured. Among the Consort’s recordings, ‘Italian Madrigals’ has been described by Gramophone magazine as ‘the best comprehensive survey of the Italian madrigal on the market’. Its anthology of English madrigals has been highly acclaimed and its recording of J. C. Demantius received the ‘Evénement du mois’ award from CD Magazine.

Last year the Consort celebrated its 30th anniversary with an invitation concert in the 14th century refectory, College Hall, Westminster School. This was preceded by an appearance on Radio 3 In Tune and followed by a morning concert in the Two Moors Festival for which it received this review from Michael White (Telegraph blog): ‘For me, the best thing in those two days was a morning concert. We listened to the Amaryllis Consort singing English madrigals with rapt attention’.

About Renaissance Art & Music

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The close interrelationship of the commissioning, production and functions of music and the visual arts in the Renaissance (c.1400 to 1650) has been increasingly recognised by scholars across multiple disciplines. But as research skills have evolved and become more suited to the specific historical needs of individual fields, the study (and experience) of music and art has occurred largely separately. Running from February 2013 to February 2014, this student-led AHRC collaborative project between the Courtauld Institute of Art and Royal Holloway will develop research training for students of musicology and art history within a framework of public accessibility and engagement, and seeks to ask new questions as a result of sustained interdisciplinary contact and synthesising scholarly approaches.

[1] David R. Smith, ed, Parody and Festivity in Early Modern Art: Essays on Comedy as Social Vision, Farnham: Ashgate, 2012, 63-64.

[1] Kerry McCarthy, Josquin in England, paper given at the Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference, 2011. Used with permission.

[2] Ibid.


[1] Michelangelo to Del Riccio, May / June 1542 in Fabrizio, 197.

[2] Michelangelo to Sebastiano del Piombo, August 1533, in R. Fabrizio, “Michelangelo and Music”, Italica 45: (2), June 1968, 197.

[3] Details of these letters given in Warren Kirkendale, Emilio de’Cavalieri, Florence, 2001, 30, 31, 35.

[4] Much of this Michelangelo section is adapted from Charlotte de Mille, The Words Didn’t Merit Such a Setting: Michelangelo’s Music from ‘Teachers’ Resource, Michelangelo’s Dream 18 February – 16 May 2010’, 17-18. http://www.courtauld.ac.uk/publicprogrammes/documents/Michelangeloteachersresourcelores.pdf. We are grateful to her for generously supplying this information.

[1] Simona Cohen, Animals as Disguised Symbols in Renaissance Art. Brill: Boston, 2008, 144.

One comment on “Programme Notes

  1. Mrs Robert Randolph
    January 20, 2014

    A wonderful evening, arranged with all one would. Well done to everyone.

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